Education is the most viable legacy left behind by our colonial masters. It is the only heritage bequeathed to us which is well embraced because of its usefulness in shaping our society and “building” of an individual. Thomas Jefferson (1820) says, “if education is expensive, try ignorance”. “A person who expects to be ignorant and force, expects what ever was and never will be”. From the assertion, it is very obvious that, education enlightens and creates averseness of ones self and the world around.
Learning is the third important process of development in human growth. This is the process through which the child’s experiences produce relatively permanent changes in their feelings, behaviours and thoughts. Learning, they sand according to different authors that is start from birth to death. And that is apparently truth, because a child will start to learn from when she is a baby with their hears and eyes with or through sound, and so on. And besides, the act of teaching is as old as man himself. The act of teaching is very crucial to the overall attainment of educational goals in any society (Bhalla and Jajoo 2001). Teaching is an art and the quality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and devotion of the teachers. Often times, we use teaching instructions, coaching, training, tutoring or education to denote the art of helping to learning, depending on the environment mode of importing knowledge and the expected behaviour outcome.
Teaching involves much more than the importation of knowledge to the children in a teacher’s classroom. Thompson (1989). To encourage study habit, locus of control and academic achievement, children needs to know beyond book know-how, student in the junior secondary schools, need to be introduced to the various aspects of socialization and the other interactions with their peers and the teachers student must look at their teachers as role model, because of their ability to impact knowledge on them. And this positive influence can be the driving force that keeps certain children in school bard (2001).
Study habit is as old as man himself. The act of studying is very crucial to the overall attainment of educational goals in any society. The art of study habit starts from the day care or feeder school. Sharing of books among children within the classroom and singing rhyming in the day care or feeder. School, encourage study habit. In primary and secondary schools, study habit aid memorization. When ever they student study at home, in school and or library, their brain take it and process. But the art of study have to be encourage by parents, teachers, and the environment at large, at the right time and place. A student cannot read her school note in the felid of play, or a loudly environment, so that the reading can stick to her brain, so that the reader will not forget an individual self concept on study habit and locus of control concern itself with how the individual sees himself as opposed to how others see him. Self concept in all form of student life aid or influence academic performance of a student. A student who has a positive perception of himself is likely going to perform better than the one who has a negative perception of himself and this can adversely after a child’s attainment in life. If study habit and locus of control is very important to the proper development and attainment of the individual, no effort will be too much to expand in looking at the impact this variable can have on the academic performance and achievement of the student in junior secondary school in Ogun state Nigeria. We should not loose sight of the fact that adequate academic performance and achievement of the students is the dream of every parent who expends money on the children’s education. Not only this, properly trained child of today will be at the vanguard of the nations development in all ramification to tomorrow. This is why this work attempts to study the study habit, locus of control and academic achievement of Junior secondary school student in Ogun state Nigeria. In otherwords, how study habit and locus of control as been influencing academic achievement in junior secondary schools students in Ogun state.
The overall objective is to ascertain the influence of students’ study habit and locus of control in their academic achievement and performance. It is one of the attempts at improving study habit and locus of control among junior school student, to aid academic performance and achievement of student.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, the student academic achievement as not been encouraging. And this research is meant to look at the effect of study habit, locus of control and academic achievement on the student academic performance in junior secondary schools in Ogun state Nigeria.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
What is the effect of study habit, locus of control and academic achievement on Junior Secondary School student academic performance?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
(1) To what extent would study habit and locus of control taking together predict student academic achievement?
(2) To what extent would study habit separately influence student achievement?
(3) To what extent would locus of control only influence student academic achievement?
(4) Is there any significance difference between make and female student’s study habit, locus of control and student academic achievement?
(5) Is there any significance difference between students in public and private school for student’s study habit. Locus of control and student academic achievement?
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The importance or concern of this study is that, the findings and information of this study would be of top most and immense help to the teachers, parent, administrators, counselors, student themselves and other stakeholders in the education sector of the economy. These set of people would be able to work together in other
to improve the study habit, locus of control and academic achievement of students in junior secondary school in Ogun state Nigeria. And in the other way round, it would have positive implication on the students academic performance.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research will be carried out among Junior secondary school student in Ogun state Nigeria.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Study habit:- This refer to the way and manner by or at which a student study his or her books often.
Locus of control:- This refers to the act of controlling or cautioning ones behaviour.
Academic achievement:- This refers to the level a student or individual attained academically.
In this chapter, the researcher shall review related literature under the following headings to measure the study habit, locus of control and academic achievement among junior secondary school students in Ogun state Nigeria.
i. Motivating academic achievement.
ii. The influence of locus of control and academic achievement
iii. Impact of study habit on students academic achievement
iv. Challenges did prospects of universal basic education in Nigeria.
v. Empirical review
vi. Appraised of literature
2.2 MOTIVATING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Education must be transfer from one generation to the other, the core of our culture’s accumulated body of knowledge poor academic performance affect the nation socially, economically, politically and psychologically. Parent, teachers, student and the government put the blame at the “Door step” of one another as being responsible for the lapses. It is surely not an exaggeration to say that the major causes of poor academic achievement are inherent in the student themselves. They could be in form of some problems students are facing or find difficult to cope with or their inability to adjusts to the demands of school work either due to physical deformities of deficient personality traits possesses by the students themselves have proved that certain personality is important in predicting academic achievement (furneaux, 1956).
For student to be motivated for academic performance in their studies, they need to know that what they are studying is indeed of real significance. In other words, they had to know that they are not being feed by some new springs innovation that will simply go the way of the faddish educational chaff that, once having gleaned its, gains, goes a long way to the winds never to bee seen or thought of again parent and teachers should help or make the student to know that they are been feed with the best that our civilization has to offer, that they are studying something that in much larger than selves. Following the assertions stated above share the view that student need to be motivated to have a positive result at the end of term. Motivation in academics can cone in any form. We have parental, peer teacher, psychological and so many ways a child can be motivated academically, to have an improved academic performance.
2.3 INFLUENCE OF LOCUS OF CONTROL ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
The locus of controls was perceived as location of control over ones lives. Locus of control in any individuals determine the behaviour and how it will be control or the limit it can go.
A number of author lay more emphasis on locus of control as critical element that determine academic achievement and performance in secondary school, and besides junior secondary school, in Nigeria and other country around the world Shinn (1973), was of the opinion that at the extreme of locus of control (internal), the student thought of himself as being responsible for his own behaviour. Student are subjected to personal blame if they fail to make their academic achievement come to reality. Stevenson (1993) emphasized that failure oriented individuals contributed outcomes to because by external factors namely, the difficulty level of the tasks or bad luck. Those failure oriented students were strongly influenced by prior negative expectancies, they are usually having how success expectancy and set themselves unrealistic goals, which were either too high or too how. To aid good and high performance among student, they need to be oriented very well, so that they can achieve academic performance.
Weiner (2002), referred to whether individuals saw an event as being cause by their own behaviour demonstrating on internal locus of control or as being cause by environmental factors that were independent of them; demonstrating an eternal locus of control. Referring to the four factors identities wiener as being related to academic achievement, ability and effort were associated with internal locus of control, and task difficulty and luck with external locus of control. A student at the junior secondary school needs to combine both his internal and external locus of control to achieve a better academic performance. Millar and Irving (1995) see locus of control as the prediction of causality in their self reinforcement model of scale with internal and external control factors. Individuals subject probability to success was determine by perception of competence of the students relation to an internalized standard of excellence they also through that success oriental student preferred tasks and activities with an intermediate level of difficulty.
However, interest in the locus of control as will be seen has been an out growth of the concern of the individual and for the moral responsibility of counselors, and educators to consider the need for children. This is because it is a mirror or a picture an individual or student holds of himself every learner attaches himself with a particular phenomenon. And this is important in a academic achievement because it leads to high need performance in school and high level of aspiration
2.4 IMPACT OF STUDY HABIT ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
The impact of study habit is too numerous to the benefit of student in general. A good study habit help the student to be academically oriented, and her academic achievement is very sure study habit makes student who had positive concept of themselves tended to have higher academic achievement. But student with good study habit, and are with negative self conception of their ability seldom succeed in school with regard to their colour or race will not have a better academic achievement.
Developing study habit is as much as about developing something enjoyable, but the simplest is actually to just get into the habit of doing it. There are so many ways of making a studying more enjoyable, it is just by getting on with important work. Once a student start doing a good study habit, the student will automatically begin to associate it with the reward it brings. Another impact study habit on student is that it gives cue, to what to do at a certain point in time. Because a child should not be reading when he ought to be playing and vise verse when a student have a good habit cue, he will do the right thing at the right time a good study habit build up the skill and personally in the student.
In the quest of building, many research as shown that, for a student to read and comprehend is very simple. They need to drink pleat of water, sit where there is good light, sit up straight and take enough breaks when necessary. Once a student can do the following act mentioned above, they will study contently and will become an habit on the part of the student.
2.5 PARENT AND PEER INVOLVEMENT IN STUDENT STUDY HABIT LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
Parents are the teacher and counselors at home. They have a lot of influence on the child must especially the mother. And their involvement can predict the student academic performance in school. Hixson (2006), explain that involvement of the parent and other family members is often cited as one of the most and very important ways to improve student in public schools, both primary and secondary. It is apparently seen in students spindly who in parent are educated and ready to give their children extra tutor at home, have good quality to show to their examiners, from their schools or outside.
Epstein (1995) identified six areas of parental involvement in their children’s academic activities in school parent, communicating, volunteering learning at home, decision making and collaborating with the community. If a student parent, most especially mother are actively involved in these areas, no doltish it stimulate their children’s interest to study, locus of control or behavioural control, and it will aid academic achievement need by the child.
Parents and other family member alone can not help the student to have the academic achievement the is deserved. The student friends both in school and at home also have their own impact and roles to play in their friends academic achievement. It can be in the positive or negative ways. Maduban (2002) note that many student in schools organize study group, clubs and society, that aid academic achievement among themselves in school. They also emulate themselves in reading and studying their books and must especially in behaviour. Either good or bad.
In junior secondary school, student have flexible mind that stick to anything that comes to their sight. It is found that the level of student study habit and interaction among fellow student in school is very high. Peer influence also encourage text anxiety. And text anxiety is a psychological condition in which a person experiences distress before, during or after an or other assessment to such an extent that this cause poor performance. And text society among peer group have the following symptoms; physical emotional, behavioural, and cognitive.
2.6 EMPERICAL REVIEW OF STUDY HABIT, LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Empirically, many psychologists, professional education researches and educations have discussed the study habit, locus of control and academic achievement, among various countries and race. A large numbers of variables so far identified are inherent in the student learner white some are embedded in schools, homes and home environment respectively. These psychologists and professional educators and or researches have individually or in group conducted researches on this issue and they have come out with some findings which help to determine the impact of study habit, locus of control and academic achievement.
Nevertheless, Fitt (1956), further confirmed that there as significant relationship between attitude towards education and academic performance. He use a thousand, two hundred and forty four (1,244) students of primary and junior secondary school age 7-15 years; he reported that in addition to the brighter children tended to like school more than the dull one. Another study was pioneered by Anastasi (1954), who found that children of high esteem levels have the tendency to perform better in verbal aptitudes than low esteem child.
R.A Olatoye and B.J. Ogunkola (2008) in the college teaching methods and styles journal, show the parental involvement, interest in schooling and science academic student. Thy concluded that parents are in the position to put their children on the right course, especially at the early stage of development. And also impact on children’s lifestyle, and perhaps throughout life. Parents should make sure they complement teachers efforts in school by monitoring and supervising their children’s academic activities in order to enhance academic achievement.
Fagbemi (2001) and Olatoye (2001) also say that interest in school is also a significant predictor of academic achievement. They emphases more that, low performance in schools is a direct influence of students unwillingness to learn. And the act will lead to examination malpractices. Banghman (2000), in his resources guide says that examination malpractices have consistently remained a bane in Nigeria educational system. Most stakeholder and employers believe that the academic certificate being issue to graduate in Nigeria are no more valuable than the pieces of paper of which they are printed. He also reveals that examination malpractices are cause by the laziness on the part of the student. A student who did not cultivate a good study habit and have a good locus of control, will have academic achievement, and this will lead them to examination malpractice in order not to show their parents and teacher that they are lazy.
Furthermore, another causes of examination malpractice, is the large population of student in school. Admissions into the secondary school in very lazy. So student goes to school of their choice in the urban area so this jest in order to excel over their mate, student who did not cultivate the habit of studying. Parent, teachers and counselors need to re-orient student in both primary and secondary schools. In order to graduate examination malpractice among student and the education system that is free of manipulation or malpractice in any form, is the best and the certificate awarded will be valuable.
Numerous models of academic advising address the complex nature of student relation and attrition. Most tend to ignore the substitutes of implementing motivation and self regulatory changes associated with academic advising. Hirsch (2001), in is study investigate the learning and reaching experiences of secondary school student and their use of academic advising. The study incorporates own educational model as its primary investigation lens, namely Hirsch’s multiple intervention models. Motivation and locus of control response measures obtained immediately prior to the examination period. How ever, if a student was unable to predict her end of the terms average grade, it simply shows that she has been reading very well. The findings suggest that although Hirsch’s (2001) model provides a valuable frame work to invest age ways student study and behave in school and at home. He also emphases that Hirschs (2001) model, if well use by the student and all stakeholders involved education, it will aid a great study habit, locus of control and academic achievement in junior secondary schools.
Therefore, efforts were shifted from intellective to non intellective factor hence there came study of locus of control. In due cause, poor performance affect the nations socially, economically, politically and psychologically. Parent, teacher, counselors, student and the government put the blame at the door step of one another as being responsible. And it is surely not an exaggeration to say that the major causes of poor academic achievement of student in Nigeria junior secondary school, most especially Ogun state, are inherent to themselves.
The purpose of this investigation is to suggest that causal element such as ability effort, task difficulty and luck, are the strongest factor of academic locus of control in predicting students academic achievement. Wiener (1979) in his own study emphasis that the success of ability, took effort, difficulty and luck, often shown by the students academic achievement, as the means causal elements of locus of control. He also view that, psychological factors have high impact on academic achievement, in a two way approaches of “locus of control” and “student perception”. Stevenson (1993) found in his study that failure oriented student contributed outcomes to be caused by external factors namely, the difficulty level of task or bad luck. The set of students were strongly influenced by prior negative expectancies. They always have low success expectancy and set themselves unrealistic academic achievement.
However, lver and Stipek 1989, these two researchers believe that if a student’s ability is low, the achievers would not perform well academically and despite tremendous amount of effort would still not product high academic achievement. He is also of the opinion that students with high effort, relative to others, put low ability on display. He also emphasis that, only if student were socialized to valve academic achievement and to feel obligated to themselves and others to pursue it, the student would only to concerned about their revealing low ability. In so many researches conducted in Nigeria, and it reveal the fact that, student found out themselves that they are responsible for their own behaviour Olatoye 2002. and researches conducted outside Nigerian also conclude in that way too Shina (1973), Weiner 1979, millar and irving (1995), they also emphasis that the four elements ability, efforts, task difficulty and luck were related to student behavioural out come.
In a poll conduct by Wikipedia the free encyclopedia on the internet in (September 2007) shows that test anxiety is another factor that affect student psychologically. And text anxiety is a psychological condition in which a person experiences distress before, during, or after an or other assessment to such an extent that this academic poor performance or interferes with normal life of the student. Conzart (2007) in his own study, reveal the symptoms of test anciently to be physical, Emotional, Behavioural, and cognitive in nature. These four element are the result of test anxiety on the student, at any level of education. He also said that anxiety can be develop for so many reasons. Some have poor negative experience with test taking that serves as the activating event. Student who have experienced, or have fear of blanking out on tests or the inability to perform in testing situation can develop anticipatory anxiety.
Conzart also cement that, test anxiety prevent student from demonstrating their knowledge on examination. Lack of confidence, fear also contributes to test anxiety. It become irrational to the pressure to perform well on examination is a great motivator unless it is so extreme. Once a student has been able to anticipate what the examination will cover, and knowing all that has been covered during the study sessions can help student to enter the testing situation with a more positive altitude. But when a child self esteem is too closely tied to the outcome of a one academic task, the results can be bad or devastating. And it noted by cozier in that poll that, helping student to develop a good study hand and academic self concept, will and good academic achievement.
Gottleeb, Rosemary J, Rogers and Janet Le (2002) in a journal of allied health talk about academic self concept, leadership and academic achievement. Academic performance is measure by the examination help at the end of the term. Most parent teachers, school management and the student themselves, knows their worth academically for the whole of the term or academic calendar. Research conducted over the years has suggested that there is a relationship between academic study habit, academic locus of control and academic achievement in junior secondary schools student. Between 1-3 previous studies have quantified the relationship between these three factors to aid a letter scholastic ability. Leadership is a characteristic most learners and educators strive to develop. In recent past, between ten to twenty years back, teachers use a tradition approach in which knowledge was imparted to the learners only through teaching format. And moreso, teachers had the sole responsibility of educating their students, so that can become future leaders.
In another research studies, the researches basically conclude that there is an interrelationship between academic achievement, study habit and academic locus of control, which have it impact on the student academic performances and effort Rosemary J (2002). She also says that the student who is portraying a positive feeling of himself, on both academic and non academic had more positive felling and characteristics in the areas of cooperation, persistence, leadership and expirations, for further schooling. The study emphasis that the theories about leadership have evolved from a scientific management approach to a human relations and behavioural approach. Which ever approach used, effective leadership finds a positive balance between considering and initiating structure and how it relates to academic achievement and performance.
Another study conducted by Fritz Hinrichs (2005), stated that education must transfer from generation to generation. The core of our cultures accumulated body of knowledge. In the days of 184.108.40.206, many student think that to believe in an accepted body of knowledge that prioritizes what is important to learn and what is not smacks of elitism and excessively. But the charge can not be denied because discernment often demands that he play the role of intellect and student. However if a student reject the notion of a “common” of knowledge, them the child have to provide a convincing and near to the question “why do we have to learn this”. In the past, the motivation given to education in Nigeria is very high, than today. Some welfare packages and other things that aid effective learning are provided by the government, community and the missionaries then. But as at today that the level of education is declining all this welfare packages such as bursary, traveling abroad, scholarship, grant from organization and even infrastructure are no more there again. And the learning process now become tedious.
Education in Nigeria is a great factor that affect the concept of living in our country. The phenomenon of the 220.127.116.11 educational system in Nigeria should not be over emphasis because of the lapses involves. In an encyclopedia on the internet, it is very obvious that a student must start schooling from primary school. And the child must spend the minimums of six years. Where they will be taught science, mathematics, English language religious knowledge and one their native language. The schools are own by government or individual. In school own by the private individual, there some certain things that are added to their curriculum. And in this process, some other subject like computer, French and art are offered to their student.
Hurlocks (1952) studied children who score high in class work and they were rewarded while those that score low were not reward. Over a period of time, the student that were rewarded and those that are not reward were reinforced. But the reward groups continue to improve while the reproved ones decline in their academic performance. Hurlocks assertion is also applicable to student in Nigeria secondary schools. Because the first three years will be spend in the junior school, so they still have flexible brain that aids learning and other activities. All the end of the three years in junior secondary school, examination will be conducted by an external body to determine whether the student worth to proceed to the senior secondary school further learn more.
The Nigeria Government of now believe that schooling till junior secondary school (3) three is ancestral and complicacy for every children in the country. So learning at this stage is connectional, that is the students continue learning from where they stopped at the primary school.
The result of all other studies show that a student be oriented on good study habit, locus of control and academic achievement, because it is a detrimental implications for the intellectual, social and personality development of the child.
2.7 APPRAISAL OF LITERATURE REVIEW
From the foregoing reviews, it is crystal clear that different investigators and researcher in the field of education and psychology had shown distinct notions regretting the relationship between study habit, locus of control and academic achievement of Nigeria student. It is very not uncommon to come across divergent views of eminent educators and psychologists as regard the above assertion. Adesanya (1984), in another study meant to investigate the extent of which self concept of adolescent have influenced their vocational preference found that self concept has no influence on the vocational preference of adolescents.
Adediran (1985), in his study, he investigated the relationship between student and adolescents self concept and their academic performance came out with finding that negated or disagreed with all studies carried out which were cited earlier in the literature review. He concludes that:-
(1) There was positive and significant relationship between study habit, self concept and academic achievement.
(2) There is a significance relationship between study habit, locus of control and academic achievement of male student.
(3) There is a significant relationship between study habit, locus of control and academic achievement of female student. He under took the study in Ondo state to investigate the direction of relationship between self concept, locus of control, study habit and student academic performance in science.
Hence, it is made obvious that, socio economic status of an individual relate to students locus of control and academic achievement. Thus teachers, parents counselors, administrators and other stake holders in the educational sector, who are mostly working with student should term together to improve student study habit, locus of control which in turn can have positive implications for their academic performance.
This chapter provides an insight into the method and procedures to be employed in the course of this study.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study is an ex-post facto research design. This is because the variables in this study had already occurred and are not subject to manipulation by the researcher. Data are to be collected after the events under investigation had already taken place.
3.3 TARGET POPULATION
In the conduct of this research, the target population consists of all Junior Secondary School Students (JSS3) in Ogun State.
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The sample for this study consists of four hundred (400) Junior Secondary School students (J.S.S III) which were selected by simple random sampling from twenty schools in Ogun State. The state was zoned into four namely Egba, Ijebu, Remo, and Yewa. The list of all schools was collected and five schools randomly selected from each zone after which twenty students were randomly selected from each school.
In this study the instruments used are
i) Study habit Questionnaire (SHQ)
ii) Locus of control (LCQ)
iii) Student academic achievement test (SAAT)
3.5.1 STUDY HABIT QUESTIONNAIRE (SHQ).
Study habit questionnaire (SHQ) contains two sections: A and B section A elicits bio-data and demographic information like name of school, sex, age, parent’s qualification, family type, while section B is a four point likert-type scale students were asked to indicate their opinion by ticking any of “Strongly Agree (SA)”, Agree (A)”, aimed at determining the students’ parental involvement.
Examples of items on study habit questionnaire (SHO) are.
1. If I work hard, I would improve my performance.
2. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck has a little or nothing to do with it.
3.5.2 LOCUS OF CONTROL QUESTIONNAIRE (LCQ)
The locus of control questionnaire is a four-point likert-type scale students were asked to indicate their opinion by ticking any of “strongly Agree (SA)”, Agree (A)”, Disagree (D)”, and Strongly Disagree (SD)” in front of each item. It consists of fourteen items aimed at determining the students self concept.
Examples of items on locus of control (LCQ) are:
i. I am helpful to other who are doing well.
ii. I am usually happy when there are assignments to do.
iii. I can pass any examination without sweat.
3.5.3 STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT TEST (SAAT)
Student Academic Achievement test (SAAT) was used to determine the achievement of junior secondary school student in core subjects. The core subjects are, English Mathematics, Social Study, Integrated Science. It consist of Forty multiple choice test items in core subject with five options A,B, C, D and E, one of which is the best option.
Examples of items on student academic (SAAT) are.
1. The organs comprise the following except the
(a) eye (b) ear (c ) nose (d) tongue (e) stomach.
2. The part of the eye where images of object are formed is the (a) iris (b) pupil (c ) blind sport (d) retina (e) lens.
3.6 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENTS.
To ensure the validity of the study habit questionnaire and locus of control questionnaire, copies of the drafted questionnaires were given to three lecturers and my supervisor to critique. Also, the student academic achievement test was given to five experience lecturers in the core subject area being covered in the study. These expert and teachers determine the level of suitability of the items.
3.7 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENTS
The reliability of the instruments were determined using a test retest method in which a pilot test was conducted on forty students apart from those in the samples but under similar conditions. The instruments were administered again after two weeks interval on the same set of students. The results of the two tests and response to the questionnaire on the two occasions were analyzed and yielded a coefficients of 0.75,0.75.799 and 0.700, for study habit questionnaire, locus of control questionnaire, and student academic achievement test respectively. This shows that the instrument is very good.
3.8 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
The instruments were administered by the researcher and three other colleaques from the Faculty of Education Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye. The respondents were assured of confidentiality and that research is strictly for academic purpose.
The copies of the questionnaires and achievement test were administered to the student simultaneously and they were given appropriate time to complete all the instruments. The instruments were collected back the same day.
3.9 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Data obtained was analyzed to find answers to the research questions using regression and t-test statistics. Regression analysis was used for research questions 1, 2 and 3, while t-test analysis was used for research question 4 and 5.
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS
This chapter discuss the result of data analysis. The research questions are answered in the order early presented in Chapter One. This research question are answered in such a way that each research question has a table.
4.1.1 Research Question 1:-
What is the combination influence of study habit and locus of control on students academic achievement?
Table 4.1:- Study habit and locus of control as predictor of student academic achievement.
R Square 0.09
Adjusted R Square 0.092
Std Error of estimate
Sum of Squares Df Mean square F Sig Remark significant
33.122 21.288 0.000 P<0.05
In this table 4.1 above study habit and locus of control account for 10.6% of the total variance in academic achievement(R Square = 0.097,P<0.05). This percentage is significant. Thus, the two independent variables(Study Habit and Locus of Control) are important factors to enhance student academic achievement.
4.1.2 Research Question 2:-
What is the relative influence of study habit on students academic achievement?
Table 4.2:- Relative influence of study habit on students academic achievement
R Square 0.062
Adjusted R Square 0.060
Std Error of estimate
Sum of Squares Df Mean square F Sig Remark significant
13658.024 14559.560 1
34.317 26.271 0.000 P<0.05
In table 4.2 above, study habit only account for 7.2% total variance in student’s academic achievement
(R Square = 0.062,P<0.05). This percentage is significant, therefore, study habit is a significant predictor of academic achievement.
4.1.3 Research Question 3:-
What is the relative influence of locus of control on student’s academic achievement?
Table 4.3:- Relative influence of locus of control on student’s academic achievement.
R Square 0.048
Adjusted R Square 0.046
Std Error of estimate
Sum of Squares Df Mean square F Sig Remark significant
Total 706.083 13853.477 14559.560 1 398 399 706.083 34.808 20.285 0.000 P<0.05
In table 4.3:- Study habit account for 4.8% of the total variance in student’s academic achievement(R Square = 0.048,P0.05),locus of control (T = -0.810,P>0.05) and academic achievement (T = -0.105,P>0.05). Thus, male and female student are equally influenced by study habit, have the same level of locus of control and academic achievement.
4.1.5 Research Question 5:-
Is there any significant different between public and private school student’s study habit, locus of control and academic achievement?
Table 4.5:- Comparism of study habit, locus of control and academic achievement by school age.
Variable Gender N Mean Std Deviation Std Error Mean Df T P Remark
Study habit Public 205 39.6976 51.59962 1.09759 398 -2.930 0.004 Sig P<0.05
Private 195 43.6205 10.99184 0.78116
Locus of control Public 205 38.5805 16.61611 1.1691 398 -2.219 0.034 Sig P<0.05
Private 195 42.2103 17.62432 1.2525
Academic Achievement Public 205 14.985 5.699 0.398 398 -4.173 0.000 Sig P<0.05
Private 195 17.456 6.1445 0.440
In the table 5.5 above, there is significant different between public and private school student’s study habit (T=-2.930,P<0.05), locus of control (T= -2.129,P<0.05) and academic achievement (T=-4.173,P<0.05).From the data above, private school student have greater study habit and academic achievement than their public school counterpart.
4.2 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
Based on the data analysis, the following summary is made of the major findings of the study.
1. Study habit and locus of control are important factors to enhance academic achievement in Junior Secondary School student. Thus, the two independent variables(study habit and locus of control) are good predictors of academic achievement.
2. Study habit combined with academic achievement gave us 0.000 which was significant. Thus, study habit is a good predictor of academic achievement in Junior Secondary School.
3. Locus of control is a good factor to enhance academic achievement. According to the findings locus of control combine with academic achievement is a good predictor of academic achievement of Junior Secondary School student.
4. When the three variables are combined together to determine the different between male and female student, female student are less interest in schooling than male student considering study habit, locus of control and academic achievement.
5. Study habit, locus of control and academic achievement are combine together to determine the different between public and private school student. The result shows that private school student are more brilliant than public school students.
5.1 DISCUSSION OF RESULT
Due to the fact that many scholars have done various work on all the variables examined in this study before, but the result of this study has obviously shown the effect and impact of the two variables to academic achievement in life of a Junior Secondary School student in Ogun State Nigeria. And the result of this study that surveys Ogun State, can also be use as a gazette for other states in the country.
Findings obtained from this study are justifiably concluded as follows;
1. That all the variables (Study Habit and Locus of Control) are good and even better predictors of academic achievement and performance in Junior Secondary School in Ogun State Nigeria.
2. That study habit is a good predictor of academic achievement in Junior Secondary schools in Ogun State Nigeria.
3. That locus of control alone is a good predictor of academic achievement in Junior Secondary school in Ogun state Nigeria.
4. That male and female are equally influenced by good study habit, but have difference in their locus of control and academic achievement.
5. That private school student are more brilliant than public school student in Junior Secondary School in Ogun State Nigeria.
IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS
This study as examined the students in Junior secondary School, and to be précised Junior secondary school Class 3 in both private and public in all Geo-political area of the state. And it shows that all the variables that are examined are good predictors of academic achievement in the state.
Based on the finding, the following recommendations are made;-
1. Individual student should be made to understand his or her “self” first in life.
2 Every student should make their books their best friend, because this idea will help them in having a good academic achievement in life.
3. Student should be made to know that one’s behaviour can affect one’s academic achievement in diverse ways either good, poor or bad.
4. To be candid, each school should have a counseling unit with qualified and professional counselors, who would help and counsel student on any problem they may have academically or behavioural.
5. Government and all other well meaning people in our society should help public school with equipment, modern infrastructures and more teachers, to meet up with the United Nations Educational Standard, so that they can meet up with their private school counterpart.
6. The teachers and the society at large should be very careful about how they handle academical issues, and not be preferential on sex or gender differences or favouring one sex against the other.
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
Result from this study have prompted the researcher to make the following suggestions for further research; Intended researchers should cover more schools and special schools in the state, in order to improve upon the authenticity of the study.
Again, further investigators should test for the level of study habit of the student and how it affect their academic performance in school.
In order to generalize the findings and to get more reliable data, more school from different part of the country should be involved. And moreso, interested researchers could delve into the academic achievement of student of different home background, i.e student from broken home, single parent, orphan, student from rural and urban settlement.
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2. Fritz Hinrichs (2002), Motivation in Education, unpublished paper of the annual Conference of mathematics Teachers in Ireland, page 1-2.
3. Gottlieb, Rosemary J, Rogers and Jenet L.(2002). Academic self-concept, academic achievement and leadership, Journal of Allied health, Vol 5. No 31 page 99-102.
4. Joy G and Prue .C. (2001), Good Study Habit, London; Latimer New dimensions Ltd, page 12.
5. Olatoye A.O and Ogunkola B.J (2008). Parental involvement, interest in schooling and Science achievement of Junior Secondary School student in Ogun state Nigeria, College Teaching Methods and styles journal, Vol 4 No 8, page 30- 39.
6. Oyedeji A. O. (1998).Introduction to curriculum, Teaching for innovation, Lade-Oye publishers Ltd Ibadan, page 14.
7. Oyegbile F. A (1997). The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of secondary school student, B.SC(ED) Project, Olabisi Onabanjo University, page 9- 17.
8. San Jose and Calif (2002). Impact of school libraries and library media; Hi willow research and publishing U.S.A. page 167-170.
9. Wikipedia (2007), Test anxiety, internet free encyclopedia, page 1-3.
10. Wikipedia (2006), Education in Nigeria, internet free encyclopedia , page 1-2.
11. Wikipedia (2009), Good Study Habit, internet free encyclopedia, page21-27.
12. Conzart (2007), The influence of causal elements of locus on academic achievement satisfaction, Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 6 No2, page 16-20.
OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM STUDIES AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
AGO –IWOYE, OGUN STATE.
MULTI-DIAGNOSTIC ACADEMIC RATING SCALES FOR STUDENTS
Please, respond to all the questions contained in the questionnaire as frankly and completely as possible. Your response will be treated with utmost confidentiality. You do not need to write your name.
Thank you for your anticipated co-operation.
i. Name of School:………………………………………………
iii. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( ) tick one
iv. local Government Area/state:……………………………………
v. Your Age as at last birthday:…………………………………….
vi. Highest academic qualification of your father/male guardian (e.g. S.S.C.E) O. N. D H. N. D. N. C. E. B. Sc. P.HD etc):…………….
vii. Highest academic qualification of your mother/female guardian (e.g. S.S.C.E O. N. D H. N. D. N. C. E. B. Sc. P.HD etc):…………….
viii. What kind of work is your Father/Male guardian doing?…………………..
ix. What kind of work is your Mother/female guardian doing?……………….
x. What kind of work do you want to do in future:……………………….
xi. Religion: Christianity ( ) Islam ( ) Traditional ( ) others (pleases specify):…………………………………………………………
xii. School type: public ( ) Private ( )
xiii. How many wives have your Father?……………………………………………….
xiv. What position is your mother?……………………………………………………….
xv. What position are you among your (i) Father’s children?…………………
(ii) Mother’s children?………………
xvi. Are your father and mother living together? Yes ( ) No ( )
xvii. School Location: Urban ( ) Rural ( )
xviii. School type ii: Boys only ( ) Girls only ( ) Boys and Girls ( )
xix. Do you have a school library? Yes ( ) No ( )
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT TEST
The following questions are designed to test the knowledge of students in science. Please note that your responses will be treated in confidence. They are for research purpose only.
Name of the school:…………………………….
Read each of the questions below and carefully tick the correct answer
1. The following are excretory product except
(a) Urine (b) Sweat (c) Carbondioxide (d) Faeces (e) None of the above
2. Which of the following is not associated with the excretory system?
(a) Urethra (b) Ureter (c) Renal artery (d) Medulla of Kidney
(e) Medulla of oblongata
3. The organs comprise the following except the
(a) Eye (b) Ear (c) Nose (d) Tongue (e) Stomach
4. The stimulus that comes from the out side of the body is receive by a nerve called a
(a) Motor neuron (b) Central neuron (c) Association neuron
(d) Sensory neuron (e) All of the above
5. The following are the main parts of nervous system except
(a) The central nervous system (b) The autonomic nervous system
(c) The peripheral nervous system (d) The spinal cord nervous system
(e) (a), (b), and (c)
6. One of the following is a function of a relies action
(a) It is not autonomic in nature (b) It can be easily controlled
(c) It protects the body from sudden danger
(d) It poisons the nervous system (e) It enables the body to relax
7. The part of the eye where images of objects are formed is the
(a) lris (b) Pupil ( c) Blind spot (d) Retina (e) Lens
8. long sightedness can be corrected by wearing glasses with
(a) Convex lens (b) Correct curves (c) Concave lens
(d) Colored glasses (e) Goggles
9. The following are reflex action except
(a) Sweating (b) Sneezing (c )Eating
(d) Coughing (e) Swallowing
10. The organ for taste is the
(a) Eye (b) Tongue (c) Ear
11. Which of the following function is not performed by the mammalian skin? (a) Protection (b) Excretion (c) Synthesis of vitamin D
(d) Sense of touch (e) Synthesis of vitamin A
12. Washing of the skin regularly with soap and water causes
(a) Lice, dirt, sweat and oil to be found on the skin
(b) The hair to trap dust and dirt in which live found
(c) The removal of sebum, sweat, Vaseline, powder and bacterial from the skin
(d) Addition of sweat and bacteria on the skin
13. At puberty, the following changes occur in girls except
(a) The hips become broader (b) The breast develop
(c) Menstruation starts (c) The is rapid increase in height
(e) The voice cracks and becomes deepen
14. The release of an egg from ovary is called
(a) ovulation (b) Copulation (c) Fertilization
(d) Menstruation (e) Conception
15. Sleeping sickness in mammal is cause by
(a) Bacteria (b) Viruses (c) Amoeba (d) Plasmodium (e) Trypanosome
16. Human faeces, urine and waste water are
(a) Industrial waste (b) Dry waste (c) Sewage waste
(d) Refuse waste (e) Sulphur waste
17. A single food item that has balanced diet is
(a) Soya beans (b) Butter (c) Milk (d) Yam (e) Maize
18. A healthy environment is all of the following except.
(a) Is clean (b) is airy and well ventilated
(c) Is not too cold or too hot (d) damp and noisy (e) Free from objects that cause accidents
19. Which of these is a water borne disease?
(a) Typhoid (b) Plague (c) Malaria (d) Typhus (e) Yellow fever
20. Which of these water sources are the purest?
(a) Sea Water (b) Tap water (c) Rain water (d) spring water (e) River water
21. A doctor we visit when we have teeth problem is a
(a) Physiotherapist (b) Optician (c) Biochemist (d) Radiologist
22. The removal of all waste matters of all kinds from the home and its immediate environ is
(a) Pollution (b) Sanitation (c) Painting (d) Washing (e) Dusting
23. A machine raises load of 100N when an effort of 20N is applied on it. What is the M.A of the machine?
(a) 2000 (b) 5 (c) 0.2 (d) 40 (e) 20
24. Which of the following is a poultry animal?
(a) Pig (b) Rabbit (c) Turkey (d) Dog (e) Goat
25. Which of following is not a cash crop?
(a) Cocoa (b) Rubber (c) Timber (d) None of the above
26. The ability of a person to see only far objects is called
(a) Short sightedness (b) Long sightedness (c) Apollo
(d) conjunctivitis (e) None of the above
27. Preventable childhood disease does not include………………………
(a) Tetanus (b) Measles (c) Small pox (d) Polio (e) Malaria
28. Transmission of traits from parents to offspring is called:…………….
(a) Genes (b) Heredity (c) Labour (d) Infection (e) Chromosomes
29. The first set of teeth in a baby is called:……………………..
(a) Milk teeth (b) Permanent teeth (c) Sugar teeth (d) None of the above (e) All of the above
30. One of the following is an eye defects……………………..
(a) Astigmatism (b) Scurvy (c) Goiter (d) Obesity (e) Anaemia
31. The organ which pumps blood around the body is the
(a) Lungs (b) Artery (c) Vein (d) Capillaries (e) Heart
32. The mass of an electron in the nucleus of an atom is:………………..
(a) 1 (b) 1/1840 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 4
33. The cell is best described as
(a) Organelle (b) a collection of organelle (c) The basic unit of life
(d) The source of life (e) Protoplasm
34. What is the oxidation number of potassium chlorate?
(a) +2 (b) +7 (c) +5 (d) -5 (e) +6
35. The electronic configuration of Nitrogen is:……………………..
(a) 2,5,5, (b) 2,8 (c) 2,8,8 (d) 2,5 (e) 2,7
36. The atomic theory was put forward by
(a) Madam curve (b) John Dalton (c) J,J, Thompson
(d) William Crooke (e) Adam Smith
37. The IUPAC name of H2 S04 is:……………………………..
(a) Tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid (b) Tetraoxosulphate (iv) acid (c) Hydrogen Tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid (d) tetrahedron (vi) acid (e) Hydrogen Surphate
38. Which of the following forces prevents slipping of the ground?
(a) Magnetic force (b) Gravitational force (c) Kinetic force (d) Frictional force (e) Electrical force
39. The instrument used to measure heat energy is
(a) Ammeter (b) Heatmeter (c) Voltameter (d) Voltmeter (e) Thermometer
40. What is the rate at which work is done?
(a) Gravitational (b) Weight (c) Sun (d) Energy (d) Power
S/N STATEMENT SA A D SD
1 I cannot perform well in many of my school subjects because the teachers are not teaching well
2 Student performance
/achievement is due to level of hardwork.
3 Becoming a success is a matter of hardwork; luck has a little or nothing to do with it.
4 Most misfortunes are the result of laziness.
5 If I work hard, I would improve my performance
6 It is my fault when I do not pass some subject.
7 The government should be blamed for not employing qualified teachers to teach us.
8 I do not perform well in some subjects because their contents are too abstract
9 No subject is difficult to pass once I work very hard.
10 I do not perform well in my school subjects because my parents don’t give enough learning material
11 The harder I prepare for an examination, the better grade I obtain
12 I do not perform well in school examination because they do not give us enough time to revise.
13 Most of the time I cannot understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give
14 I would do well if I have been studying at home
15 My performance in the school subject is low because I have ill-luck.
16 Many times examination questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying is really useless.